– NASREDDIN HODJA –
The man who made the world laugh and think.
Nasreddin Hodja is one of the most important characters of our history. Although it is not known exactly where and when he lived, it is believed that he was bom in the village of Hortu, Sivrihisar, that he settled in Akşehir after doing his education in Konya. Death year: 1284, age: 76
We know hundreds of meaningful jokes By Nasreddin Hodja, who became a popularity. Studies based on his jokes reveal that he was an Imam (a man who leads prayers), a witty public philosopher and an honest and devoted Muslim respected and loved by everyone around him.
He is indeed like a teacher with an ever-lasting smile on his face, giving us the recipe for peace and happiness through his teachings and utterances.
This public figure, who impressed the world with his proverbial jokes, is also a good educator. He observed and analyzed the environment in which he lived and the people he lived with. He was by nature cautious in the face of events and always ready to pop a witty response without hurting the feelings of the questioner. He was a good-tempered, patient and easy-going man. He not only respected the beliefs of people but also did his best to make those beliefs a way of life, which made him a source of knowledge for not only the authorities but also the general public to solve their problems. Everyone loved this public philosopher, who sometimes settled a problem through a humor and irony. He was a great guide who became a child with children. He taught and admonished the public taking personal differences into consideration. For this reason, his jokes encompasses all walks of life including home, family, street, congregation and work and are told on all occasions.
As well as being a historical celebrity, Nasreddin Hodja is now a great legendary popularity like Yunus Emre, Köroğlu and Karacaoğlan. As a result of this, some neighboring Muslim countries claim that he lived among them. A lot of people, especially those speaking Turkic languages, are well acquainted with him and his jokes.
Ahmet EFE September, 2004 / Eskişehir
Biography of Nasreddin Hodja
Obviously, one of the most important figures in Turkish world of the culture is Nasreddin Hodja, who was decorating his wiseness with art of humor. But his life story is very’ arguable. There are many disputable issues such as his historical reality, where and when he lived.
However, according to many authorities, Nasreddin Hodja was born village of Horlu, Sivrihisar, Eskişehir al 1208 A.C. Despite some disputes in which he was born, it si proved that Sivrihisar is Nasreddin Hodjas place of birth through some scientific and archeological researchs. Many researchers such as Fuad Köprülü and Pertev Naili Boratav are agreed in this issue. His mother was Sıdıka Hatun his father was Abdullah Efendi. His first teacher was father; who was imam of village. He attended to medresse at Sivrihisar. He ret urned to his village when his father died and he became imam of village. He had been in this mission till 23 years old.
He was studied some religious lessons by scholars such as Seyyid Mahmud Hayranı and Seyyid Hacı Ibrahim, especially Seyyid Mahmud Hayrani teached to him sufizm. According to some rumors, he completed his religious education at Konya, where his teachers are Hace-i Cihan and Hace Fakih. After his religious education he became müderris and kadi until he settled to Akşehir. He begun to teach imaret Medresse in Akşehir. His first wife was ugly and widow woman. When she was died he married again. He had two daughters from this marriage: Fatma Hatun and Durri Melek Hatun.
The historical process in which he lived was decline of Anadolu Seljukis. In these years many most important and serious events happened, such as Revolt of Bahais, invasion of Moghols, the Seljukis princes’ struggle of sovereignty, four wars with Crusades etc. These complex social conditions influenced the state of scholar class. These social conditions were mainly sources of Nasreddin Hodjas anectodes.
Nasreddin Hodja’s anectodes insist in social, religious, juridical and ethical motives. In these anectodes criticize some odd states which may be faced all areas of daily life criticized by wisely humor. These anectodes have philosophical, didactical and critical aspects. Nasreddin Hodjas anectodes is told and known in all over world. The places of these anectodes realized are places of daily life such as street, quarter, bazaar, market, mosque, medresse, court etc. The persons in them are real and common persons, for instance, Hodja, his wife, his son, his neighbors, his students etc.
According to our knowledge, Nasreddin Hodjas name don’t place in documents of his era. His name have begun to place in documents since 15. century. First source his name place in is Saltukname, written by Ebul Hayrı Rumi. dated 1480. In West, first book is Les Paroles Remorguaples et Maxines des Orientaux, written by Antoine Gollard. Saltukname has recorded that Nasreddin Hodja was very famous person and his witty remarks were written as a book. Hikayat-i Nasreddin, oldest book of his anectodes, was written in 1571. Nasreddin Hodja’s anectodes firstly published in Matbaa-i Amire at Istanbul and in Bulak publishing house at Egypt (1837).
Nasreddin Hodja’s name is given to many activities. Many humoric magazine had used his name in Turkey and other countries. For example, a magazine called Molla Nasreddin published in Azerbaijan from 1906 to 1920. Likely some magazines such as Hoca Nasrettin (1908), Nasrettin Hoca (1914,1920,1927), Yeni Nasrettin Hoca (1936), Yeni Hoca Nasrettin (1940) were published in Turkey. Also, an international cartoon competition (since 1974) and a national humoric short story competition (since 1976) were organised in the name of Nasreddin Hodja in Turkey. UNESCO declared 1996 as “The Nasreddin Hodja Laughter Year of World So, it is another proof that Nasreddin Hodja is accepted universally figure in art of humor.
Kenan Çağan – Asist Prof Dr
Dünyayı Güldüren ve Düşünen Adam
Ulusumuzun yetiştirdiği büyük insanlardan biri olan Nasrettin Hoca 1208 tarihinde Eskişehir ili Sivrihisar ilçesi Hortu Köyünde doğduğu, Konya’da tahsilini tamamladıktan sonra Akşehir’e yerleşerek orada vefat ettiği sanılmaktadır. Ölüm yılı: 1284, yaşı: 76
Halk muhayyilesinde efsanevî bir şahsiyet haline dönüşen Nasreddin Hocanın birbirinden anlamlı yüzlerce fıkrasını biliyoruz. Bunlar üzerinde yapılan araştırmalar sonunda Hocanın iyi niyetlerin timsali bir cami imamı, keskin zekalı ve hazırcevap bir halk filozofu ve nihayet örnek ahlakı ile çevresinde sevilip sayılan, dürüst ve samimi bir Müslüman olduğunu anlıyoruz.
Gerçekten O, daima tebessüm eden yüzüyle her an aramızda yaşayan, her sözü ve işareti ile bize huzur ve mutluluğun yollarını gösteren bir öğretmen gibidir. Atasözleri gibi faydası ve doğruluğu tartışılmayan fıkralarıyla sadece ulusumuzu değil, bütün dünyayı etkileyen bu halk adamı yine araştırmacıların tesbitine göre iyi bir eğitimcidir. İçinde bulunduğu çevreyi ve aralarında yaşadığı insanları gözlemekte, güleryüzü ve alçak gönüllülüğü ile daima hazır cevaplar yetiştirebilmektedir. Uyumlu bir kişiliği vardır. Milletinin değer yargılarına saygılı ve hatta o değer yargılarının hayat haline gelmesi için gayret göstermektedir. Belki bu yüzden şehrin idaresinden sorumlu devlet görevlileri dahil olmak üzere toplumun her kesimi işlerini ona danışmakta, müşküllerini çözmesi için ona başvurmaktadır.
Çoğu zaman aykırı ve nükteli bir cümle ile problemin çözümünü sağlayan bu halk filozofu yediden yetmişe herkes tarafından sevilip sayılmaktadır. O, çocukla çocuk olmasını bilen, insanların ferdi farklılıklarını daima göz önünde tutan, kısacası insanların seviyesine inerek onlara nasihat eden bir kılavuz gibidir. Bu sebeple fıkraları ev, aile, sokak, cemaat, iş hayatı gibi günlük yaşayışın her safi lası ile ilgilidir ve bugün bile her fırsatta akla gelerek anlatılmaktadır.
Artık Nasreddin Hoca, tarihi bir şahsiyet olmanın ötesinde tıpkı Yunus Emre, Köroğlu, Karacaoğlan gibi halk muhayyilesinde efsaneleşmiş bir büyük şahsiyettir. Bu sebeple gerek memleketimizde gerekse komşu ülkelerde insanlar ona sahip çıkmakta, bir zamanlar aralarında yaşadığını iddia etmektedirler. Özellikle Türk dilinin konuşulduğu ülkelerde Nasreddin Hocayı ve fıkralarını bilmeyen yok gibidir.
KÜLTÜR YAYINLARI – ISBN 975-6881-01-1